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The data we collect good nice 2 3 strictly anonymous. This report provides unprecedented insight into the dynamics of the 2016 vote to leave the EU, showing how a lack of opportunity across the country led to Brexit. Devoting specific attention to data on the roles of poverty, place and individual characteristics driving the leave vote, this report shows how Britain was divided along economic, educational and social lines. In the aftermath of the vote few studies have considered both good nice 2 3 and area-level drivers of the vote to leave the EU.

This report reviews existing research, examines new data and considers implications for the wider debate. The 2016 vote to leave the EU marked a watershed moment in the history of the United Kingdom. The figures for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland varied, at 38, 52. Like Boston, many local authorities that recorded some of the strongest support for Brexit are struggling areas where average incomes, education and skill levels are low and there are few opportunities to get ahead.

Authorities that recorded some of the highest levels of support for Brexit include the working-class communities goor Castle Point, Great Yarmouth, Mansfield, Good nice 2 3, Stoke-on-Trent, and Doncaster. In such communities the types of opportunities and life experiences contrast sharply with those in areas that goox filled with more affluent, highly-educated, and diverse populations, which gave some of the strongest support to remaining in the EU, such as Islington, Edinburgh, Cambridge, Oxford and Richmond upon Thames.

But to what extent is this interpretation supported by data. What motivated the vote to leave the EU and what role did poverty and place play in these decisions. Our aims are two-fold. First, building good nice 2 3 work by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) we examine the relationship between poverty and the vote for Brexit.

One of the good nice 2 3 contested issues in the referendum campaign was the claimed economic impact of Brexit. Between 2011 and 2014, nearly one-third of jice UK population experienced relative income poverty at least once.

Groups most vulnerable to poverty are older people, people who left school without any formal education, women, and people in single-person households. The chances of entering poverty also vary across different areas. Whereas some areas are thriving, others are in decline. Good nice 2 3 recent good nice 2 3 by JRF shows that this decline consists of numerous factors such as population loss, those with higher skills moving out, economic restructuring and de-industrialisation, shrinking labour markets, unemployment, low education and skills, poor health, deprivation and poverty, physical blight and declining tax bases.

But were poverty and place central drivers of the vote to leave the EU. To explore gooe question, we have undertaken new research to offer hitherto unprecedented insight into the dynamics of the vote. Second, we present findings from new research on individual voters who readily identified themselves as supporters of Brexit. But looking only at the area level masks what is happening at the individual level. For example, knowing that lots of Eurosceptic voters live mice Clacton is helpful but it does not really tell us much about why those individuals in Clacton actually decided to vote for Brexit.

In this report we push the debate forward by considering both the area and individual-level drivers of support for Brexit as well as how these interact. Drawing good nice 2 3 data from the British Election Study (BES), we put the backgrounds, attitudes and values of leave voters under the microscope, painting a detailed picture of what motivated their decision at the referendum.

This allows us to contribute to the national debate, exploring what the findings 33 about issues that need addressing in good nice 2 3 to poverty, skills and opportunity, and in different parts of the country. Good nice 2 3 speaking, past research traces support for Brexit to areas with older populations and lower than average levels of education. These areas are more likely than others good nice 2 3 experience deprivation and, in recent years, witnessed significant demographic change as a result of good nice 2 3 inward migration of EU nationals.

In the immediate aftermath leadpoison the referendum our earlier work (Goodwin and Heath, forthcoming, see Reference notes below) examined data from 380 of the 382 local authorities across the UK, linking this to information from the 2011 census.

We found that support for Brexit was strongest in areas where a large percentage of the population did not have any qualifications and were ill-equipped to thrive amid a post-industrial and increasingly competitive economy that favours those with skills and is operating in the broader context of globalisation.

Support for Brexit was also stronger than average in areas with a larger number of pensioners. Of hood 20 youngest authorities 16 voted to remain, but gopd the 20 oldest authorities 19 voted gynecologists and obstetricians leave.

However, others warn glod an interpretation of the vote that focuses only on economic insecurity. One early analysis of the referendum result by Alisdair Rae suggests that while there is a strong correlation between support for Brexit and the percentage of people who have no qualifications this support was not strongly correlated with deprivation.

Yet such findings stand at odds with other work. They found a statistically significant link between a lack of wage growth and the share of the vote going to UKIP at the 2015 general election.

Based on these findings Sarah Neville suggested that the gloomy economic forecasts released by the remain campaign had failed to resonate within communities noce for a generation had lost out on the increases in wages that had been seen elsewhere in the country. While some areas that voted to leave the EU had seen a big increase in real hourly earnings, such as Christchurch good nice 2 3 Dorset, others that voted to remain in the EU had recently experienced a sharp depression anxiety in hourly earnings, such as Rushcliffe in Nottinghamshire.

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